The US Supreme Court ruled on same sex marriages and removed the broad federal definition of marriage that applies to over a thousand laws and regulations. Decision in US v. Windsor (.pdf) One of those regulations is from the Securities and Exchange Commission and affects fundraising for private funds and other private placements.
One of the standards for private placements of securities is that an investor generally needs to meet the definition of “accredited investor.” For an individual that means a (1) net worth, excluding the primary residence, of $1 million, or (2) annual income in excess of $200,000 in each of the two most recent years or joint income with a spouse in excess of $300,000.
Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act mandated that the word “spouse” refer only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife.” 1 U.S.C. § 7 (1997)
Less than 10 years ago, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court went through a laundry list of legal rights that couples enjoy once they are married. In the landmark Goodridge decision, that court decided that “spouse” should not be limited to a man and a woman. It affects a broad spectrum of rights granted by the government to people who are married.
The US Supreme Court decided that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act is unconstitutional. Therefore, the accredited investor definition’s use of the word “spouse” is no longer restricted by DOMA to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife.
In the states that allow same-sex marriage, an issuer should now be able to allow a same-sex married couple to combine their income to meet the standard. I don’t think the SEC needs to take any action for this to happen.
In states that allow civil unions, the answer is a bit murkier and depends on the rights granted under state law. The civil union law would need to deem the two participants to be “spouses.” That is exactly what Illinois did in its civil union law:
“Party to a civil union” means a person who has established a civil union pursuant to this Act. “Party to a civil union” means, and shall be included in, any definition or use of the terms “spouse”, “family”, “immediate family”, “dependent”, “next of kin”, and other terms that denote the spousal relationship, as those terms are used throughout the law. SB1716
What is even murkier is a married couple who move to a state that does not recognize same sex marriage. Are they still “spouses” if not recognized by their state of residence? Justice Scalia raises this issue in his dissent.
Whether you agreed with DOMA or not, it made a very bright line test for “spouse”. That line is now more complicated for determining if a potential investor is an “accredited investor.”
This may become even more complicated when the SEC finally issues the regulation that lifts the ban on general solicitation and advertising. The new regulation will require a firm to take reasonable steps to determine that an investor is accredited if it wants to engage in general advertisement or solicitation. It will be interesting to see if the SEC includes something on this issue.
Given the SEC’s huge rulemaking backlog, I doubt they will make a separate statement on same-sex marriages under securities law. The SEC could tuck something into the advertising rule since it is already in the works. Perhaps the SEC was waiting for the Windsor case to be decided.
- Decision in US v. Windsor (.pdf)
- Liveblogging Supreme Court same-sex marriage cases: What today’s rulings mean for angel investing and the startup financing ecosystem
- The accredited investor definition, after the Supreme Court strikes down DOMA
- A Story by Joe Wallin
- “Spouse” Abuse: Regulation D And The Defense Of Marriage (.pdf) by Ryan J. Kretschmer, Walton International Group in the Blue Sky Bugle
- United States v. Windsor on the SCOTUS Blog
- Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health (.pdf)
- Same Sex Marriage and Accredited Investors
- The New Accredited Investor Standard – prior post