506(c) and General Solicitation and Advertising in Securities Offerings

Section 201(a)(1) of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) directs the Securities and Exchange Commission to amend Rule 506 of Regulation D. Congress wants to permit general solicitation or general advertising in offerings made under Rule 506, provided that all purchasers of the securities are accredited investors. With one caveat: the issuer must take reasonable steps to verify that purchasers of the securities are accredited investors. After some delays, the SEC has finally published a proposed rule to implement the Congressional mandate.

After waiting all summer for a proposed rule, the SEC decided to finally take action during my vacation. And on the day I promised to take my kids to Story Land. My review of the rule and commentary would have to wait until my kids had their fill of Cinderella and the Bamboo Chutes.

Thanks to William Carleton’s live blog and a review of speeches, I could see that the five commissioners were not in full agreement about the rule or the procedure for adopting the rule. Commissioner Gallagher was in favor of the proposed rules, but wanted it to be an interim final rule. Commissioner Aguilar thought the proposed rules did not go far enough in protecting investors. In the end, that may not mean much.

As expected, the removal of the general solicitation and public offering prohibitions, comes with a few caveats.

Does Not Remove Ban

I found it interesting that the SEC chose to create a new regulatory scheme, rather than merely eliminate the ban. The proposed rule includes a new Rule 506(c) that permits general solicitation and advertising provided all investors are accredited and the issuer takes reasonable steps to verify that they are accredited. 506(b) stays in place allowing an issuer to have up to 35 sophisticated, but non-accredited investors, provided there is not general solicitation or advertising, but does not have to take reasonable steps to verify the investors’ status.

“Take reasonable steps to verify”

The SEC did not do what many feared would be the worst result under the JOBS Act. The proposed rule does not impose any specific requirement to verify that an investor meets the standard of an accredited investor. “Whether the steps taken are “reasonable” would be an objective determination, based on the particular facts and circumstances of each transaction.”

To some extent that seems okay. In the private equity fund model we have a particular concern that a potential investor will be able meet a capital call. It should just mean having to document the diligence process.

However, the SEC did strike one common aspect of fundraising practice.

[W]e do not believe that an issuer would have taken reasonable steps to verify accredited investor status if it required only that a person check a box in a questionnaire or sign a form, absent other information about the purchaser indicating accredited investor status.

Offering documents will need to be changed.

A Non-Accredited Investor Sneaks In

The language of the JOBS Act made some, including me, nervous that if a non-accredited investor could sneak into an offering and blow up the exemption. A person of limited means really wanted to be an investor, lied on the questionnaire, but passed through the reasonable steps taken by the issuer to verify status. Fortunately, the SEC took that position that the issuer would not lose the ability to rely on the Rule 506(c) exemption, so long as the issuer took reasonable steps to verify that the purchaser was an accredited investor and had a reasonable belief that such purchaser was an accredited investor.

Changes to Form D

In addition, to the new 506(c) the SEC is proposing to amend Form D. The notice filing with the SEC would have a check box to indicate whether an offering is being conducted pursuant to the proposed Rule 506(c) that would permit general solicitation.

Blessing for Private Funds

Private funds typically rely on the Rule 506 safe harbor to raise funds without having to register under the Securities Act. Private funds were also restricted under Section 3(c)(1) and Section 3(c)(7) of the Investment Company Act from making a public offering of securities. Historically, the SEC has considered rule 506 transactions to be non-public offerings. But would the SEC change that position given its hostility towards the JOBS Act?

Thankfully, the answer is no.

We believe the effect of Section 201(b) is to permit privately offered funds to make a general solicitation under amended Rule 506 without losing either of the exclusions under the Investment Company Act.


Now there is 30 comment period. I’m just guessing, but I’d be surprised to see changes to the proposed rule. I think the benefit of the comment period will be to add some additional commentary around the “reasonable steps to verify” standard.