Felons and Fund Managers

Most private funds rely on a Rule 506 exemption under Regulation D to sell their limited partnership interests to investors. A new SEC rule amending Rule 506 should catch the eye of private fund compliance officers. The concept it fairly straight-forward: felons should not be allowed to take advantage of the private offering exemptions.

Dodd-Frank

Section 926 of Dodd-Frank requires the SEC to adopt rules disqualifying an offering from reliance on Rule 506 of Regulation D when certain felons or other “bad actors” are involved in the offering. Rule 506 is the most widely claimed exemption under Regulation D. For the 12 month period ended September 30, 2010 the Commission received 17,292 initial filings for offerings under Regulation D, of those 16,027 claimed a Rule 506 exemption.

What types of felonies?

The  proposal is not for all felonies, just those related to the securities industry. So you could be a convicted Under the proposed rule, a “disqualifying event” would include:

  • Criminal convictions in connection with the purchase or sale of a security, making of a false filing with the SEC or arising out of the conduct of certain types of financial intermediaries. The criminal conviction would have to have occurred within 10 years of the proposed sale of securities (or five years, in the case of the issuer and its predecessors and affiliated issuers).
  • Court injunctions and restraining orders in connection with the purchase or sale of a security, making of a false filing with the SEC or arising out of the conduct of certain types of financial intermediaries. The injunction or restraining order would have to have occurred within five years of the proposed sale of securities.
  • Final orders from state securities, insurance, banking, savings association or credit union regulators, federal banking agencies or the National Credit Union Administration that bar the issuer from:
    • associating with a regulated entity.
    • Engaging in the business of securities, insurance or banking.
    • Engaging in savings association or credit union activities.
  • Or orders that are based on fraudulent, manipulative or deceptive conduct and are issued within 10 years before the proposed sale of securities.
  • Certain Commission disciplinary orders relating to brokers, dealers, municipal securities dealers, investment companies and investment advisers and their associated persons, which would be disqualifying for as long as the order is in effect;
  • Suspension or expulsion from membership in a “self-regulatory organization” or from association with an SRO member, which would be disqualifying for the period of suspension or expulsion;
  • Commission stop orders and orders suspending the Regulation A exemption issued within five years before the proposed sale of securities; and
  • U.S. Postal Service false representation orders issued within five years before the proposed sale of securities.

Who is covered?

The proposed rule would cover

  • the issuer (i.e. the fund)
  • its predecessors and affiliated issuers
  • Directors, officers, general partners and managing members of the issuer.
  • 10 percent beneficial owners and promoters of the issuer (i.e. the fund manager).
  • Persons compensated for soliciting investors
  • the general partners, directors, officers and managing members of any compensated solicitor (i.e. employees of your placement agents).

The rule is bit fuzzy on how this would apply to fund manager, since it is not legally the issuer. Under the investment advisers registration you already need to disclose criminal activity. That disclosure is broader than what is proposed under the new rule. This is just disclosure, not a bar from use of the offering exemption.

Reasonable Care Exception

The proposed rule would provide an exception from disqualification when the issuer can show it did not know and, in the exercise of reasonable care, could not have known that a disqualification existed.

Paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall not apply:

(i) Upon a showing of good cause and without prejudice to any other action by the Commission, if the Commission determines that it is not necessary under the circumstances that an exemption be denied; or

(ii) If the issuer establishes that it did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, that a disqualification existed under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

Instruction to paragraph (c)(2)(ii). An issuer will not be able to establish that it has exercised reasonable care unless it has made factual inquiry into whether any disqualifications exist. The nature and scope of the requisite inquiry will vary based on the circumstances of the issuer and the other offering participants.

Here is where compliance steps in. The rule has no explicit record-keeping, reporting or disclosure requirements. But if you want make sure you can take advantage of the “reasonable care exception” you will need to keep records.  It looks like we will need a new form for employees to fill out asking for a disclosure of events under the rule. It also looks like you will need to run criminal background checks on your principals and key employees.

In the release the SEC said: “The steps required would vary with the circumstances, but we anticipate may include such steps as making appropriate inquiry of covered persons and reviewing information on publicly available databases.”

Comments

This is still a proposed rule, but time is short. Under Dodd-Frank, the disqualification rules need to be in place by July 21, 2011. There is time to Submit Comments.

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